樹東峰夫の「オキナワの少年」
Mineo Higashi’s “Okinawa no shōnen” [Child of Okinawa]

OkinawaNoShonen

JAPANESE TEXT:
Higashi, Mineo. “Okinawa no shōnen” [Child of Okinawa]. Okinawa no shōnen. Tokyo: Bungeishunju Ltd., 1971. 7-86.


ENGLISH TEXT:
Higashi, Mineo. “Child of Okinawa.” Trans. Steve Rabson. Okinawa: Two Postwar Novellas. California: Univ. of California Inst. of East, 1996. 81-117.

OkinawaTwoPostwarNovellas


Click here to get Japanese-English flashcards for “Okinawa no Shōnen.” Strongly recommended for anyone who wants to read the story in Japanese.


1. Introduction


Higashi Mineo is a contemporary Okinawan writer who won the Akutagawa Prize in 1972 for “Okinawa no shōnen” [Child of Okinawa]. He was born in Mindanao, Philippines in 1938, and returned to Okinawa in 1945. In 1956, he dropped out of high school, later claiming that the reason was he read too much Tolstoy. After that, he started working on Kadena base in Okinawa, but he soon changed his job many times.


HigashiMineo

In 1964, he went to Tokyo and started working at a book bindery, but he changed his job to have more time to write. In 1971, he made some money from “Okinawa no shōnen,” but he remained poor. In spite of his poverty, he refused to write a sequel to “Okinawa no shōnen.” After that, he seldom wrote and faded from the limelight. In 1977, he got married and went back to Okinawa. In 1984, he had two children, but he eventually abandoned his family and went to Tokyo again. In 1993, he worked as a security guard but lost his job because of depression. He sometimes lived on the street. In 2002, he wrote “Gādo man aika” [A Guard’s Elegy]. After moving, he did not tell his address—even to his editors. Even now, he lives in obscurity.

After “Okinawa no shōnen,” Higashi wrote “Shima de no sayōnara” [Saying Good-bye on the Island] (1972) and “Chura kāgi” [Beautiful Face] (1976). “Okinawa no Shōnen” is based on his childhood; “Shima de no sayonara,” on his teenage years; and “Chura kāgi,” on his adolescent. These three stories are sometimes regarded as a trilogy. However, Higashi himself emphasized that he never wrote a sequel to “Okinawa no shōnen,” so one cannot so easily say that the three stories are connected.

“Okinawa no shōnen” is Higashi’s first story and, the second Okinawan work to win the Akutagawa Prize. One of the remarkable features of the work is Higashi’s mixing of Japanese and Okinawan language. Although the language is comprehensible for Japanese readers, Higashi manages to capture the linguistic rhythm of the Okinawan language. Another remarkable feature is the story’s setting. At the beginning of the story, Tsuneyoshi’s mother wakes him up and tells him to let a U.S. soldier and a prostitute use his bed. The shocking scene reveals the painful circumstances of Okinawans who needed to be involved in the sex trade for U.S. soldiers. In other words, the story describes an abnormal situation surrounding an ordinary boy in Okinawa.

In 1983, the story was made into a movie, with the same title. In the movie, Tsuneo is a young adult who has left Okinawa and is working in Tokyo. His childhood is depicted through flashbacks, but the movie adds a scene of the crash of a U.S. military fighter jet into Miyamori Elementary School in Ishikawa, an actual event that occurred in 1959. In addition, Tsuneo works at a book bindery, just as Higashi did. Tsuneo often feels the discriminatory attitudes of Tokyoites towards Okinawans, and since Okinawa is under U.S. military rule, he needs a passport to go to Japan. The movie depicts the suffering of Okinawan people before reversion.


OkinawanBoys



2. Character List

Tsuneyoshi つねよし
He is the narrator and protagonist of the story, and is a junior high school student who lives in Koza. His father runs a brothel. He is good friends with the girls who work at the brothel and likes Chīko, who is a prostitute. He sometimes hates his father because his father regards the girls as slaves. On the other hand, Tsuneyoshi and his mother are close although they often quarrel. He hates that he depends on his family’s business. Bored of living in Okinawa, he plans to escape and go to an uninhabited island.

Tsuneyoshi’s mother おっかあ
She runs the brothel and often tells Tsuneyoshi to let the girls use his bed. She sometimes scolds Tsuneyoshi for being lazy and tells him to go to school, but she is always worried about him. When she finds that Tsuneyoshi’s eyes are red because of dust, she uses her breast milk to wash his eyes.

Tsuneyoshi’s father おとう
He is the owner of the brothel but lets his wife run it. He can read Japanese and proudly reads the newspaper to his wife. He tells Tsuneyoshi to act cheerfully like a Japanese soldier. He seems to have the identity of a mainland Japanese. He often hits his son to discipline him, but Tsuneyoshi thinks that his father is just sexually frustrated. Because of the frequent scolding, Tsuneyoshi thinks his father does not like him.

Chīko チーコ姉
She is a prostitute and good friends with Tsuneyoshi. She gave him a wristwatch, but clearly regards Tuneyoshi as just a boy—not a man. The fact that she wants to draw pictures with him suggest that she wants to forget about being a prostitute woman and be a child with him. Late in the story, Tsuneyoshi’s mother and Michiko say that Chīko burned her face when a soldier threw a hand grenade at her.

Michiko ミチコー
She is a prostitute who works at Tsuneyoshi’s house. She is good friends with Chīko and often talks with Tsuneyoshi’s mother. In the story, she is always the one who uses Tsuneyoshi’s bed.

Man from Hateruma 波照間のおじさん
He runs a bookshop and manages Tsuneyoshi’s paper route. He comes to Koza from Hateruma island. Tsuneyoshi buys
Robinson Crusoe at his shop.

Miss Asato 安里先生
She is Tsuneyoshi’s teacher and speaks only Japanese. Tsuneyoshi speaks only Japanese when he talks to her.

Keizō 恵三
He is Tsuneyoshi’s friend and also delivers newspapers. He speaks Japanese well. Although he had good relationship with Tsuneyoshi when he was interested in art, now that he is interested in math, he does not have good relationship with him.


SettingKoza


3. Plot Summary


In chapters 1-4 (7-13), Tsuneyoshi’s mother wakes him up and tells him to let a U.S. soldier and Michiko use his bed. He gives up his bed and goes outside. On the street, he talks with Chīko, whom he likes. Tsuneyoshi glances back at her after their short conversation and sees her walking arm in arm with a U.S. soldier. He goes back to his room and finds that the watch that Chīko gave him is gone. He thinks the soldier who used his bed took it, but his mother tells him to give it up because they need their business to live.

In chapters 5-7 (13-8) Tsuneyoshi remembers the goats his family used to have before moving to Koza. Now he delivers newspapers to earn money for his family. He remembers when his family moved to Koza. His father started a sex business for U.S. soldiers. Overhearing his father, Tsuneyoshi is disappointed because he thought his father looked down on the girls.

In chapters 8-13 (18-29), Tsuneyoshi is woken by his mother and goes to his job. After that, he goes to school and is suspected of stealing money. He runs from school and goes up a hill. Playing with himself, he has his first ejaculation. He wonders why U.S. soldiers have sex with girls even though they can get pleasure by themselves.

In chapters 14-15 (29-34), Tsuneyoshi remembers Saipan, where he lived during his childhood. Looking at a map, he wonders how he can get there. On the way home, he finds something white in the grass and discovers they are used condoms. At home, Tsuneyoshi hears Chīko chatting to Michiko in the next room. They are talking about having sex with the U.S. servicemen. While eavesdropping on their conversation, he masturbates.

In chapters 16-19 (34-42), Tsuneyoshi buys a copy of
Robinson Crusoe at a shop. While he is playing a bamboo flute in his room, Chīko appears. She takes the flute from him and plays it. He gets nervous because she puts her mouth on it. After she plays, he can’t put his mouth on it because he likes her. His mother comes into his room and tells him to draw water with his young sister. He says good-bye to Chīko, and she looks sad. When Tsuneyoshi is eating dinner, his father scolds him for his way of eating. Tsuneyoshi wants to retort that his father eats with his elbow on one knee, but just as he is about to say something, his father changes his posture.

In chapters 20-25 (42-54), Tsuneyoshi is woken up at midnight by his mother, who tells him to draw water again because a U.S. soldier urinated in the water tank. He refuses and runs outside. As he walks on the street, Tsuneyoshi thinks that people in Koza have lost their living spaces. At a beach, he finds a
sabani boat and lies down in it. When he wakes up in the boat, he discovers that his knife is gone. He starts to imagine himself a modern day Robinson Crusoe and then there are some objective accounts of several sea creatures. Walking along the beach, he plans to run from Okinawa.

In chapter 26 (54-60), Tsuneyoshi is reading
Robinson Crusoe when his mother asks him to let a U.S. soldier and Michiko use his bed. He refuses her request and goes back to reading. Although he wants to think about his plan, he cannot help overhearing their sexual sounds and ends up masturbating. After that, he asks his mother to give back the money he has earned. He wants to prepare the items that are needed to go to an inhabited island. She refuses at first but finally gives him a bill. Angry, Tsuneyoshi tears up the bill. His mother is surprised and tries to pick up the pieces.

In chapters 27-33 (60-74), Tsuneyoshi starts to study about boats and pottery. He finds some piece of flint on a hill. He looks down on Koza from the top of the hill and makes fun of the city. On the way home, he sees a U.S. soldier and a girl. The girl is picking dried grass tangled in her hair. At home, Tsuneyoshi talks with his mother. He has red eyes, so she has him lie on her lap, bares her breast, and squeezes breast milk into his eyes. After that, his father asks him to crawl under the floor to fetch the dog. Tsuneyoshi refuses because the crawlspace is dirty place. His father scolds him and pretends to hit him in the head with his hammer. Tsuneyoshi thinks he is a nuisance for his father. Wanting a gun, he remembers finding some guns in a grove near some graves. He goes there but cannot discover them. Walking along the beach, he feels that there is no place to go. He finds a dock for US soldiers and their families and decides to steal a boat.

In chapters 34-38 (74-86), Tsuneyoshi prepares items to bring to an uninhabited island. He decides to leave Okinawa. When he is hungry, his mother goes to buy him something for his meal. Looking at her back, he is close to crying because he is moved by his mother’s kindness. But he does not change his plan. The wind is blowing hard because of an approaching typhoon, but he runs to the beach anyway. He realizes that he forgot to bring the bag he prepared. At the dock, he manages to slide into a boat, even though there is a guard in the hut. He remembers that he also forgot to bring his water bottle, but still determined to leave, he waits for a chance to cut the rope, so he can sail away.


4. Point of View

The story is narrated in first person from Tsuneyoshi’s point of view. He calls himself boku, which is the Japanese first person pronoun mainly used by boys. Higashi says that he originally started writing the story in third person, but later changed to first person. Nakazato Isao points out that because of the change Higashi was able to recreate that natural linguistic rhythm of Okinawan language (Nakazato 2012).

However, the use of a young first person narrator makes the narration unreliable. For example, Tsuneyoshi’s narration often reflects his bitterness, so that even descriptions become distorted: “This long and skinny town was started by people who lost their land to the American base. They came clustering along the military highway like ants swarming around a worm that had crawled out in the sunlight” (Higashi, trans. 98). This sarcastic remark about Koza should be viewed as Tsuneyoshi’s biased opinion—not an objective description. On the other, his narration helps readers to connect to Tsuneyoshi on an emotional level.


5. Symbolism

The watch 腕時計

Tsuneyoshi received a watch from Chīko, whom he likes. He hung the watch over a nail on his room’s wall, but he finds his watch is gone when he comes back. He says to his mother, “No, damn it. Someone took it! I told you this was a lousy business” (Higashi, trans. 83). His watch seemed to be stolen by a U.S. soldier. Significantly, the watch has Popeye’s picture on its face. Popeye is an American cartoon character of a sailor man. He has muscular arms and symbolizes masculinity.

PopeyeWatch

Tsuneyoshi likes the watch, which suggest that he wants to be a manly adult man. In addition, he wants to be treated as an adult man by Chīko. On the other hand, Popeye is a cartoon character, which symbolizes childness. Contrary to Tsuneyoshi’s desire, Chīko continues to treat him as a boy (Higashi 37-8). In this way, the watch also symbolizes that Tsuneyoshi is still a boy. Interestingly, the watch symbolizes masculinity and childness at the same time. The fact that the watch is stolen by a U.S. soldier suggests that the U.S. presence has had distorted Tsuneyoshi’s masculinity and prevents him from leading a healthy childhood.

Robinson Crusoe ロビンソン・クルーソー

Tsuneyoshi often read
The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, written by Daniel Defoe, and dreams that he can escape from Okinawa. Reading the book, he longs to go to an inhabited island, where he can live as Robinson Crusoe did. For Tsuneyoshi, Robinson is a symbol of freedom and of escape from society.

RobinsonCrusoe

After getting the book, Tsuneyoshi begins to plan for his escape: “And then, after collecting my wages, I would buy a knife lures hooks for fishing, vitamins, and whatever else I’d need to live on an uninhabited island. I’d also get books about sailing techniques, nutrition, and the other things I’d have to bone up on for the journey” (Higashi, trans. 102). This shows that Tsuneyoshi refers to the book for his plan to escape from Okinawa. The book tells him what he needs on a desert island. Clearly, the book has a big influence on him.

Seaside pine メリケン松

On the way to the harbor, Tsuneyoshi notices the branches of seaside pines swaying in the wind and thinks they look like the hair of an insane woman: “I tried hard to put my arms around her, but, like all women, she was too big for me” (Higashi, trans. 116). “Big” suggests how important and overwhelming women feel for Tsuneyoshi. This passage suggests that Tsuneyoshi ultimately fails to gain a positive sense of his own masculinity: he cannot see himself as an adult male in a healthy relationship with a woman. This is because there were not any positive male role models for young Okinawan men during the U.S. occupation. No longer a child, and sexually frustrated as an adult man, Tsuneyoshi has no other choice than to run away from Okinawa to seek a new identity.

Secondary sexual characteristics and masculinity 第二次性徴と男性性

Tsuneyoshi is a junior high school student and begins to acquire his secondary sexual characteristics. In Chapter 13, he masturbates for the first time, and his body becomes more adult. As his body grows, his mind also wants to be an adult, which is to say, he wants to be more masculine. However, as the symbolism of the Popeye watch suggests, his masculinity has been robbed by the US soldiers. He cannot be an adult male in Okinawa, even though his physical body continues to grow. To gain a sense of masculinity, he wants to go another place. His secondary sexual characteristics, then, symbolizes that it is time for him to become a man, and to escape from Okinawa to end his childhood.


6. Writing style

“Okinawa no shōnen” has often been praised for its revolutionary use of Okinawan language. Tsuneyoshi’s first person narration is usually in Japanese, but the conversations are a mix of Japanese and Okinawan language. Nakazato Isao points out that the Okinawan language in the story is an unnatural hybrid created by Higashi. He blends Okinawan language with the Japanese language and writes it using Japanese kanji. The Okinawan language does not have its own script and is usually written in Japanese hiragana or katakana. However, since kana are syllabaries that convey sound—without meaning—this way of transcribing the Okinawan language makes it difficult for Japanese readers to understand. As a result, Okinawan language had not been used successfully in Japanese literature. Using kanji—which convey meaning—to transcribe the Okinawan language makes it more understandable for Japanese readers. That is why Higashi was more successful. Nakazato adds that Higashi’s winning the Akutagawa Prize has encouraged other Okinawan writers to use Okinawan language, too.

Nakazato also summarizes some of Michael Molasky’s arguments. Molasky points out that Higashi uses katakana to express the distortions created by the US Occupation. “Okinawa” (in the title), “Koza,” and the names of prostitutes are all written in katakana, the Japanese script usually used to express foreign concepts. After WWII, Okinawa was dominated by the US, and this created various distortions in Okinawan society, most notably, the proliferation of prostitution and other sexual services for US soldiers. Higashi uses katakana to emphasize that Okinawa has been distorted.


7. Criticism

Ōno, Takayuki. “Okinawa no shōnen no kōsatsu—Mainā bungaku no shiten kara” [An Essay on “Okinawa no shōnen”: From the Standpoint of Minor Literature]. Japanese Literature 47(2). 1988: 32-42, 91.

In this paper, Ōno argues that Higashi’s use of Okinawan language is a major turning point for Okinawan literature. The Okinawan language in the story is a mix of Japanese and Okinawan language, which reflects the diffusion of Japanese and the decline of Okinawan language. As part of its standardization campaign, the Japanese government encouraged the use of the
hōgen-fuda (a dialect penalty card to shame students who used Okinawan language) in schools. In “Okinawa no shōnen,” Tsuneyoshi usually speaks Japanese with his friends, even outside of school, and his teacher never uses Okinawan language. This shows that Japanese is the public language. On the other hand, Tsuneyoshi thinks in Okinawan language and uses the language with his parents. Ōno points out that the use of Okinawan language in the narration reveals the awkwardness that Tsuneyoshi feels in using Japanese.

Ōno also objects to Michael Molasky’s argument that the story has two levels of patriarchy: US control of Okinawan men and Okinawan men’s control of women. Ōno argues that the US occupation robbed Okinawan men of their status. The poor economy forced many Okinawans to engage in the sex trade. This in turn forced Okinawan men to depend on women and to sacrifice them for the family. This also put men in a weaker, dependent position. Ōno insists that the second level of patriarchal control didn’t exist at all.


Nakazato, Isao. “Senryō to sei to gengo no porifonī [Occupation,Sexuality, and a Polyphony of Languages]—Higashi Mineo’s
Okinawa no shōnen.” Kanashiki agengotai — Okinawa, kōsa suru shokuminchishugi. Tokyo: Miraisha, 2012: 155-84.

Nakazato argues that Higashi’s writing style makes the Okinawan language sound plausible to readers—even though he has created an artificial language. Most importantly, his mixed language recreates the linguistic rhythm of Okinawan language. When Higashi lived in Tokyo, he noticed that many Okinawan words came from old Japanese words. This lead him to think that Okinawan language would become more understandable for mainland Japanese readers by mixing the two. At the same time, he retained the linguistic rhythm of the Okinawan language.

Nakazato also points out that Tsuneyoshi’s peeping and eavesdropping show how his masculinity is being suppressed. Tsuneyoshi cannot have sex with women, so he is limited to the vicarious experience of voyeurism. As a teenage boy, he has strong sexual desires, but all he can do is watch and listen to the U.S. soldiers having sex with the prostitutes at his home. Since they are usually in the next room, he cannot help peeping and eavesdropping.


8. Themes

Distorted sexuality and male-female relationships in postwar Okinawa

“Okinawa no shōnen” shows how sexuality and male-female relationships were distorted as a result of the U.S. Occupation. Okinawa was completely devastated by the war, so many Okinawan people had no choice but to engage in the sex trade, which targeted U.S. soldiers. Although Tsuneyoshi criticizes his father for hiring prostitutes, Higashi makes clear that his father first attempted and failed at several other businesses, including making konyaku and running a shop (Higashi 17-8). In other words, he needed to get involved in the sex business and to sacrifice women in order to survive. His willingness to sell women, however, signals a loss of masculinity (in the sense that he fails to protect them) and a collapse of fatherhood (in the sense that he loses his son’s respect).

The shocking opening scene shows the unhealthy environment that surrounds Tsuneyoshi: his mother tells him to let a soldier and prostitute woman use his bed. Although he is only a teenage boy, he is already familiar with prostitution and has a crush on a prostitute, Chīko. Even though he tries to escape this frustrating situation, he is constantly forced to witness sexual encounters. For example, when he is reading
Robinson Crusoe, Michiko and a soldier start to have sex in the next room. Reading the book was his means of escape, but he can’t help hearing them have sex (Higashi 54-8). Sexually frustrated, Tsuneyoshi has no outlets other than masturbation and voyeurism.

Surrounded by prostitutes and unhealthy images of sex, Tsuneyoshi begins to see his father as sexual predator, too: “I realized now that Dad was just like the soldiers. All he’d wanted was to get into a woman. Then after he climbed on, something extra come along. Me. To him I was just a nuisance, a piece of baggage” (Higashi, trans. 108). Clearly, Tsuneyoshi has a distorted view that has been influenced by the sex trade. Significantly, Tsuneyoshi sees his very existence as being the result of a loveless sexual encounter.

Tsuneyoshi often finds sexual objects. For example, he finds a pair of brightly colored panties (Higashi 20) and some used condoms (Higashi 31). His friends talk about the smell of semen as they walk to school. On the other hand, Tsuneyoshi never meets any girls his own age, and the only women he knows are prostitutes. To summarize, Tsuneyoshi has no opportunities for a normal sexual relationship.

Absence of Positive Male Role Models in Post-War Okinawa

This story suggests that young men in postwar Okinawa had few positive male role models. To begin with, Tsuneyoshi does not have a good relationship with his father. He does not respect him, and he scorns him for using women as objects. Not only does Tsuneyoshi’s father use women in his business, he also fails to have any responsibilities. He doesn’t actually run his brothel, but leaves the management duties to his wife. In this sense, he is a sort of “grown-up boy,” who fails to fulfill his male duties of protecting women and working hard. Shinjō Ikuo points out that such “grown-up boys” often appear in works of Okinawan literature, especially those of Medoruma Shun, one of the most famous Okinawan writers.

The US soldiers, on the other hand, display their masculinity, but Tsuneyoshi has a difficult time identifying with them. As the enemy that defeated his country, the soldiers seem distant to Tsuneyoshi, so he views them as rivals—not as role models. For example, Tsuneyoshi feels humiliated when one of the soldiers steals the watch that he received from Chīko. Indeed, losing the watch is a blow to Tsuneyoshi’s male ego.

Tsuneyoshi’s friends do not serve as positive male role models either. Tsuneyoshi used to feel manly and confident when he was with his friend Keizō, but lately that relationship has deteriorated (Higashi 24). When his friends laugh and joke about semen, Tsuneyoshi feels confused and embarrassed. Keizō’s newly found interest in mathematics may suggest an alternate way to exert one’s manhood, but Tsuneyoshi does not do well at school, so this does not seem like a good possibility for him.

Tsuneyoshi does have a good relationship with his mother, but she treats him like a boy rather than a man. For example, she uses her own breast milk to wash the dirt out of Tsuneyoshi’s eyes, and she often scolds him for not doing his chores. At the same time, she refuses to give him the money that he has earned from his job. Similarly, Chīko sees Tsuneyoshi more as younger brother than as an adult man. She openly parades her sexuality in front of him, oblivious to the fact that he might be sexually stimulated. In addition, she shows no signs of being aware of Tsuneyoshi’s feelings towards her.

The final scene of the story, then, can be interpreted as Tsuneyoshi’s frustrated attempt to search for a sense of manhood by himself. Sexually frustrated and unable to exert his own will in any sphere, he decides to leave Okinawa and live on an uninhabited island, like Robinson Crusoe, who becomes Tsuneyoshi’s model of manhood. The final scene shows Tsuneyoshi about to set off on a manly adventure: “I crouched down, tightly grasping my knife, and listened to the tide crashing against the hull. As each wave rocked the boat higher and higher, I know I would soon be carried out to the open sea. Rising through my feet, a surge of violent excitement set my whole body quivering” (Higashi, trans. 117). The sexual imagery of Tsuneyoshi gripping his manly weapon and shivering with sexual excitement before his boat enters the open sea suggests that Tsuneyoshi will head off to seek his masculinity. Although Tsuneyoshi’s prospects seem bleak, Higashi challenges Okinawan men to find a new sense of Okinawan masculinity.


9. Discussion Questions

1. How does the opening scene set the tone of the story? What themes are introduced?

2. How does Tsuneyoshi view his father? How about his mother?

3. How would the story change if told from Chīko’s point of view?

4. Describe Higashi’s use of Okinawan language in the narration, dialogue, and internal monologue.

5. Describe Tsuneyoshi’s relationship with his father. How does that relationship shape Tsuneyoshi’s thinking about male roles?

6. Are Keizō and Seiichi good examples of masculine men for Tsuneyoshi? Or are they “grown-up boys?” Explain your answer.

7. What is the symbolic significance of the Japanese translations of
Robinson Crusoe in Chapter 26?

8. Why doesn’t Tsuneyoshi ever identify with the U.S. soldiers?

9. What does the watch mean to Tsuneyoshi? How does its loss affect him?

10. What does the story suggest about the proper role of men in Okinawan society?

11. Why does the story finish before Tsuneyoshi actually leaves Okinawa? What will it happen when he does?


10. Works Cited

Braziel, Jana Evans. “Deleuze and Guattari: Notes on Towards a Minor Literature.” ACLAnet. Sarah N. Lawall. Web. 23 Dec. 2014.

Higashi, Mineo. “Child of Okinawa.” Trans. Steve Rabson.
Okinawa: Two Postwar Novellas. California: Univ. of California Inst. of East, 1996. 81-117.

---. “Okinawa no shōnen” [Child of Okinawa].
Okinawa no shōnen. Tokyo: Bungeishunju Ltd., 1971. 7-86.

---. “Shima de no sayonara” [Good-bye in the Island].
Okinawa no shōnen. Tokyo: Bungeishunju Ltd., 1971. 88-162.

Molasky, Michael. “A Base Town in the Literary Imagination.”
The American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and Memory. New York: Routledge, 2001. 53-69.

---. “Senryo to sei to Okinawa no identity” [Occupation and Gender and Identity of Okinawa]. Senryo to bungaku [Occupation and Literature]. Tokyo: Origin publication center, 1983. 295-310.

Nakazato, Isao. “Senryō to sei to gengo no portifonī [Occupation, Sexuality, and a Polyphony of Languages]—Higashi Mineo’s
Okinawa no shōnen.” Kanashiki agengotai — Okinawa, kōsa suru shokuminnchishugi. Tokyo: Mirai sha, 2012. 155-84.

Ōno, Takayuki. “Okinawa no shōnen no kōsatsu--Mainā bungaku no shiten kara” [An Essay on
Okinawa-no-Shōnen--From the Standpoint of Minor Literature]. Japanese Literature 47(2). Tokyo: Japanese Literature Association, 1988. 32-42, 91.

Shinjō, Ikuo. “Kuwadate toshite no shōnen.”
Okinawa bungaku to iu kuwadate. Tokyo: Impact shuppankai, 2003. 116-44.

Uehara, Ayano. “Higashi Mineo
Okinawa no shōnen Ron” [An Essay on Okinawa no Shōnen]. Okinawa International University—gobun yo kyōiku no kenkyū (1). Okinawa: Okinawa International University, Mar. 2000. 57-63.


Original report by Kyōhei Fujioka. Edited and revised by Takuma Sminkey.